What is the difference between someone who consistently performs to the best of their ability and someone whose performance is unpredictable? What allows someone to effortlessly tap into their peak performance and reach their goals and what compromises a person’s ability to access and sustain it? One word- outlook. Martin Seligman‘s groundbreaking research on learned optimism reveals how being optimistic is consistently related to improved health and longevity. A US study of nearly 100 000 students found that people who are optimistic are less likely than those who are pessimistic to die from Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) or from any other cause over an eight year period. On the other hand, pessimism has been linked to chronic stress and poor health functioning such as high levels of inflammation, a weakened immune system, increased pain perception, and other signs of physiological and mental dysfunction. Optimistic people appear to manage stress more efficiently than others so that their stress disappears at a faster rate than those who don’t utilize optimism in their outlook.
Seligman developed a test to help people identify their outlook style (which you can take here.) If your base level of optimism isn’t very high, don’t panic. In fact, it means that you are at the level where learned optimism can be the most beneficial!
Executive coaching can be an effective way to learn and adopt optimism to improve your overall functioning and sustain peak performance in all areas of your life. I typically work with high-achieving young adults in the tech community of the Bay Area/Silicon Valley. Working with a coach is great for healthy people who are motivated to change what isn’t working, but need some guidance on how to execute strategically and efficiently.
The following tactics outline the basic tenets of Learned Optimism. Keep in mind that our first reaction to something will always be automatic and happen instantaneously – that’s normal and to be expected! We can acknowledge our initial reactions to an event without this becoming our permanent outlook on the matter. That’s where Learned Optimism comes in. We can cultivate this skill by identifying our first reaction, clarifying how this first outlook might impact our overall ability to problem-solve and perform, and challenge ourselves to adjust our outlook in order to optimize our performance and goal achievement. With practice, we can improve our mental toughness, which is what helps a person cope with difficult situations, persevere and succeed at a high performance level.
Our outlook is shaped by our individual explanatory style, a psychological attribute that indicates how people explain to themselves why they experienced a particular event, either positive or negative. There are three components to this:
- The permanence of an event – how long someone thinks it will last
- The pervasiveness or scope of an event – whether the person sees the event as specific and contained, or global and all-inclusive
- Personalization of an event – whether the person views the event as something that was caused entirely by oneself, others or external factors
Learned Optimism tool # 1 – Adjust TIME outlook for an event.
Find ways to view a negative event as temporary:
- “The next fiscal quarter will be better.”
- “This is a short-term setback.”
- “I’m having an off day today.”
Find ways to view a positive event as enduring and reflective of personal ability:
- “I’m on a roll now, because I’ve worked hard, practiced, and now have a winning strategy.”
- “I know I can handle challenging things because I’ve already overcome so much.”
- “I’ve created opportunities for myself in the past, and am capable of creating more.”
Learned Optimism tool # 2 – Adjust SCOPE of an event.
Find ways to view a negative event as specific and contained to one situation:
- “The next event will work out better because of what I’ve learned this time around.”
- “I won’t let this personal rejection or difficult co-worker get in my way or stop me from reaching my goal.”
- “Things at my company are rough right now, but my personal life is going well.”
Find ways to view a positive event as global:
- “Earning this promotion has gotten me on the right path to developing as a leader in the company.”
- “My management style is more effective since I’ve made an effort to be more approachable and generous with my time.”
- “Taking social risks has been challenging but I’ve learned that overall, people respond well to me when I reach out first.”
Learned Optimism tool # 3 – Adjust PERSONALIZATION to contain one’s responsibility, recognize which personal strengths were utilized, and which external circumstances influenced the outcome of an event.
For negative events, identify your personal accountability, then factor in others’ contributions and the role of external circumstances:
- “I can see how I contributed to the fight my spouse and I had. I want to clarify my expectations and work on finding some middle ground so the next time this issue comes up we can avoid a blowup.”
- “I reacted without communicating beforehand with my team members, which led to a break down in our overall progress. I will suggest a few temporary solutions until we can figure out a more inclusive strategy.”
- “My company is going through major layoffs, and in spite of the contributions I made that demonstrated real utility, I’ve been informed it’s time to find my next position.”
For positive events, recognize which personal strengths you utilized to bring this event to fruition:
- “I stayed focused on my goals and was willing to work harder when other people were frustrated and fed up, which helped me move forward and achieve in spite of facing real adversity.”
- “I’m more comfortable and experienced speaking in front of others than my co-founder, so I took on the responsibility of pitching our idea to investors and now our startup has seed funding.”
- “I’ve worked on building up my tolerance for discomfort in social situations, which I believe gave me the confidence to ask out someone I’ve been interested in for months. Even if it doesn’t work out, I feel good about stepping up and taking initiative.”
Bringing it all together- learned optimism is a winning strategy to get through challenging or unfair situations by shining a spotlight onto where there is opportunity for improved coping, positive progress and effective solutions. Our initial response to a situation may not be the most effective way to navigate it successfully. The key to adopting an optimistic mindset is to acknowledge the inherent choice we have in our response. Learned optimism is not an exercise in avoiding responsibility or ignoring dire circumstances either. Adopt an outlook that encourages personal accountability, and supports your performance growth in every area of life. From your education to your work to your health, it is your outlook that predicts your level of success above all else.